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The millwright trade is a key component for the construction and maintenance of machinery. Early millwrights were specialist carpenters with a working knowledge of driveshafts, bearings, gearing and mechanical belts, who erected machines used in agriculture, food processing and processing lumber and paper.In the early part of the Industrial Revolution, their skills were pressed into service building the earliest powered textile mills. The "mill" in millwright refers to the trade beginnings in building flour mills,
A welder is a tradesperson who specializes in fusing various materials together. Steel, aluminum, brass, stainless steel and copper are some of the most common types of metals which require the skills of a trained welder. Although there are different varieties of plastic and polymers that can be fused together, the process is slightly different and requires different equipment to complete these tasks. Welders need to understand the properties of the materials that are being welded together, so some technical
Welding Photo
Milwright Photo
sawmills, paper mills and fulling mills powered by water or wind.

Millwrights of today still work with wood, but most often with steel and other materials and are trained with the aptitude of several skilled trades in order to successfully fabricate industrial machinery or to assemble machines from pre-fabricated parts. Millwrights must also be able to accurately interpret blueprints and other engineered drawing in order to determine work procedures, to construct foundations for and to assemble, dismantle and overhaul machinery and equipment, using hand and power tools and to direct workers engaged in such endeavors.

In the course of work, millwrights are required to move, assemble and install machinery and equipment such as shafting, precision bearings, gear boxes, motors, mechanical clutches, conveyors, and tram rails, using hoists, pulleys, dollies, rollers, and trucks. Training and experience in the use of lathes, milling machines and grinders is often required to make customized parts for repairs. In addition, a millwright may also perform all duties of general laborer, pipefitter, machinist, carpenter, and electrician.

Millwrights are usually responsible for the unassembled equipment when it arrives at the job site. Using hoisting and moving equipment, they position the pieces that need to be assembled. The training, experience and knowledge of today’s millwright allow them to work safely and efficiently when dealing with large, heavy or awkward pieces of equipment and machinery. Their job requires a thorough knowledge of the load bearing capabilities of the equipment they use as well as an understanding of blueprints and technical instructions.

Lubrication of machinery, bearing replacement, seal replacement, cleaning of parts during an overhaul and preventative maintenance is all routine to a trained millwright. A good understanding of fluid mechanics (hydraulics and pneumatics), and all of the components involved in these processes, such as valves, cylinders, pumps and compressors is required.

Modern standards of practice for millwrights also require working within precise limits or standards of accuracy are trained to work with a wide array of precision tools, such as vernier calipers, micrometers, dial indicators, levels, gauge blocks, and optical and laser alignment tooling.

Millwright are trained to and often required to work at heights; develop and use a logical step-by-step work procedure; plan, solve problems and make decisions based on solid information.

knowledge about the materials being joined is part of the training.

Welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, so the risk of burns is significant. However, with the use of proper protection, the risks can be greatly reduced. Welders wear personal protective equipment in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. Another potential danger comes from the brightness of the weld area and can leads to a condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes. Goggles and welding helmets with dark face plates are worn to prevent the exposure to high amounts of UV light. To protect bystanders, opaque welding curtains or other structures are often put up around the welding area.

Exposure to dangerous gases and particulate matter that is produced by the welding process presents another hazard. For example, the welding smoke produced tends to contains particles of various types of oxides, which in some cases can lead to medical conditions like metal fume fever. Adequate ventilation is required, and the use of fitted respirators is recommended to protect the workers in the area. Another common precaution would be to keeping combustible or explosive materials away from the workplace.

Welding is an extremely interesting and varied process, and there are several dozen different welding processes in use today. Some of the more popular welding processes in use in industry are SMAW (stick), GMAW (mig, FCAW, flux core mig), and GTAW (tig). Manufacturers have the ability to choose from literally hundreds of metal alloys, dozens of welding processes, and an ever increasing number of filler metals and shielding gases. Any or all of these variables most likely will require different tests for the welders.

Welder certifications, (also known as welder qualification) are specially designed tests to determine a welder's skill and ability to deposit sound weld metal. The tests consist of many variables, including the specific welding process, type of metal, thickness, joint design, position, and others. Most often, the test is conducted in accordance with a particular code. In Canada, the governing body that looks after the quality of weldments is the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB).

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